- In the News
21 newsletter in total have been released between July 2012 until July 2014. The last five issue are available online (see below).
COMPOSITE’s final practitioners conference: Overview of the conference “Good Leaderships in Times of Change – Empirical Findings and Suggestions for Police Leaders” on 12 and 13 June 2014 in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) by Kate Horton:
More than 65 participants took part in a 2-day practitioners' conference, hosted by Rotterdam School of Management in June 2014 aimed at examining Good Leadership in Times of Change. The event brought together police leaders and scientists from more than 12 different countries for an exciting programme of events. Key note speakers included Frank Paauw, the police president of Rotterdam and Prof Dr. Nick Fife from the Scottish Institute for Policing Research, while attendees included members of the COMPOSITE research consortium, end-user and strategic advisor board members, and a host of external participants from different areas of policing and police science. The conference programme covered the primary topics of interest addressed by COMPOSITE including knowledge sharing, technology, change, identity and leadership, also showcasing the tailored research projects that were co-developed by police and academics in each of the COMPOSITE countries. In addition, we discussed the challenges and opportunities of inter-disciplinary working and the benefits of engaging in police-academia dialogues for promoting evidence based management through applied research. A panel discussion involving police leaders and academics offered a lively interactive forum, where key issues in policing science were discussed and debated.
In addition to a packed conference programme, attendees were treated to a memorable social programme, including an architectural bike trip around Rotterdam city and a hosted dinner at the famous Hotel New York – providing ample opportunity to continue discussions late into the evening.
The event concluded with a fantastic insight into the work of our COMPOSITE photographers, with a photo gallery depicting images from each of the 10 COMPOSITE countries. Photographers, Hans van Rhoon and David Adams travelled around Europe to capture policing activities in different contexts; the resulting gallery is a fitting tribute to their efforts, as well as to the diverse nature of police activities across the COMPOSITE countries. The exhibition allowed participants to link the presented scientific insights to concrete visualisations of the daily police practices. This exhibition also shows that police literally arrived in the middle of the university. We thank Carmen Heijmerink and Jeroen Bodewits from the art department of Erasmus University for their dedicated and competent support in this exhibition and proving that art and science can be a powerful combination. http://www.eur.nl/english/art/exhibitions/exhibitionoverview/detail/article/64093-exhibition-on-policing/
We would like to thank all attendees of the practitioner conference for their generous support of the COMPOSITE project. The last four years would not have been possible without your commitment and we look forward to continuing our work with you in the future.
For explanation: Our two university colleagues Carmen and Jeroen organised the exhibition and the vernissage against all concerns "Students do not like police" and budget constraints, because they believed in the importance of the exhibition. A tragedy happened last week: Both died in a tragic car accident on the way back from a gallery in Antwerp where they went for new art for the university. As you can imagine, we are all in shock.
Review: COMPOSITE symposium at the Institute of Work Psychology International Conference 2014 at Sheffield University (Great Britain), June 2014:
On 26th June 2014, results of the COMPOSITE project were presented in a symposium at the Institute of Work Psychology International Conference 2014, a biennial academic conference focused on Work, Leadership, Wellbeing and Performance. The focus of this symposium was set on "Enablers and barriers to change in police organisations".
The IWP International Conference 2014 took place at Sheffield Town Hall (Great Britain) on the 24th-26th June, 2014. The next conference will take place in 2016. Hosted by the Institute of Work Psychology, Sheffield University Management School, the biennial conference is now in its fourth year. Each event has welcomed over 200 delegates from across 36 countries.
This internationally recognised conference focuses on cutting-edge research and theoretical contributions from all areas of work and organisational psychology, with particular focus on the areas of work, leadership, wellbeing and performance. We invited high quality submissions in all areas of work, applied social, organisational, industrial, occupational and vocational psychology and in the related fields of organisational behaviour and human resource management.
Members of the COMPOSITE team showcased their work at a specially organised symposium, which was well well-attended and stirred lively discussions regarding the findings of the COMPOSITE project and their dissemination.
Overview of the symposium:
After a brief and general introduction to the COMPOSITE project by Dr. Kamaljit Birdi (Senior Lecturer in Occupational Psychology at the Sheffield University Management School and British COMPOSITE team member), Saskia Bayerl (COMPOSITE team member from Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam of The Netherlands) was first to present COMPOSITE results on enablers and barriers to change in police organisations. She presented a study on "Changes in the Dutch national police – investigating the antecedents to change commitment".
Mario Gruschinske and Susanne Stein-Müller (German COMPOSITE researcher, both from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg) followed with a case study conducted within the Guard Duty and Policing on the Beat Unit of the Brandenburg Police (Germany) on the "Effects of distance leadership on police performance".
A cognitive theory of organisational change in EU police was presented last by Karen Elliot (British COMPOSITE researcher).
Dr. Kamaljit Birdi closed the symposium with a finalizing synopsis. For more information visit: http://iwpconference.group.shef.ac.uk/.
Review: Three-day conference "Empirische Polizeiforschung - XVII" in Hamburg (Germany), June 2014:
On the 3rd to 5th July, 2014, the XVII. conference on "Empirische Polizeiforschung" (Empirical Police Research) took place at the Police Academy in Hamburg (Germany). Issue of this year event was about "The Criticised Police". In the course of three days a range of topics had been discussed and critical reflected.
Two speeches with reference to COMPOSITE results were held at the conference: Saskia Bayerl (COMPOSITE team member from Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam of The Netherlands) and Nathalie Hirschmann (German COMPOSITE researcher from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg) showed in their presentation "Social Media as Communication Tool in Police Forces" how social media is used (or not used) by German police forces. Next to COMPOSITE results which summarised the best-practice examples of the COMPOSITE brochure “Best Practice in Social Media Adaption” they showed various international as well as German examples of unsuccessful police presence by using social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and Co. which have often been met with criticism. The final conference presentation by Stefanie Giljohann and Dr Jochen Christe-Zeyse (German COMPOSITE researcher, both from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg) reported their insights of four years COMPOSITE research. In fact, criticism of and within police organisations was no central research issue, however, there have been various moments of criticism which was to be found in our case studies such as the criticism of colleagues behaviour or attitudes etc.
The conference was framed with a visit at the police museum which informed about an impressive police history of Hamburg’s police force. Even football enthusiasts had their pleasure getting the opportunity to watch the football match between France and the by now new Wold Cup Champion Germany; those of the participants who weren't so much keen on watching 22 athletes chasing a ball got the chance to look at the hole event from a scientific perspective; this funny non-serious agenda item was therefore named: "Common Session: collaborative analysis of a football event using the example of the World Cup quarterfinal" in the evening of the 4th July. Please, let me finish with these (private) words: Not only from this side, there was no critic expected.
Invitation to COMPOSITE's concluding conference on "Good Leaderships in Times of Change – Empirical Findings and Suggestions for Police Leaders" on 12 and 13 June 2014 in Rotterdam (the Netherlands):
If you're involved in European policing and safety management as a researcher or a practitioner.
If you are working in the field of international change management and leadership as a researcher or practitioner.
This is an event that might be interesting to you:
Save the date in your diary today and we'll send you registration details and further information soon.
Associate Professor Social and Organizational Psychology
June 12 2014 2 pm until
June 13 2014 1:30 pm
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus Expo- and Conference Centre (M-building)
Burgemeester Oudlaan 50
3062 PA ROTTERDAM
If you have any queries about the event, please do not hesitate to contact RSM/Erasmus University
Bep Klop: firstname.lastname@example.org
0031 10 408 2373
Congratulation: Highly Commended Paper certificate for Gabriele Jacobs, Arjen van Witteloostuijn and Jochen Christe-Zeyse:
The highly Commended Paper award goes to Gabriele Jacobs, Arjen van Witteloostuijn and Jochen Christe-Zeyse for their paper on "A theoretical framework of organizational change" published in 2013 in the Journal of Organizational Change Management. The paper broaches the issue of organsational change seeking to develop a theoretical framework in order to analyse barriers and enablers of organisational change in reference to the respective context.
The journals’ Editorial team chose the paper as winner as it was seen as one of the most impressive pieces of work throughout 2013. In order to increase the dissemination of high standard articles the paper is freely available for one month.
Full reference: Gabriele Jacobs, Arjen van Witteloostuijn, Jochen Christe-Zeyse, (2013) "A theoretical framework of organizational change", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 26 Issue: 5, pp.772 – 792.
The paper is available via the journals webpage on: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17095903
Perspectives on the police profession: An international investigation". Accepted for publication in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management:
Authors: P. Saskia Bayerl (RSM, NL), Kate Horton (RSM, NL), Gabriele Jacobs (RSM, NL), Sofie Rogiest (U Antwerpen, BE), Zdenko Reguli (Masaryak U, CZ), Mario Gruschinske (FHPol Brandenburg, GE), Pietro Constanzo (FORMIT, IT), Trpe Stojanovski (MARRI Regional Center, FYROM), Gabriel Vonas (Babes-Bolyai U, RO), Mila Gasco (ESADE, SP), Karen Elliott (U Durham, UK)
Description: This study aimed to clarify the diversity of professional perspectives on police culture in an international context. Using Q-methodological interviews with 100 police officers in six European countries (Belgium, Czech Republik, Italy, Macedonia, Netherlands, UK), the authors found five perspectives on the police profession. These perspectives suggest disparities in officers' outlooks and understanding of their occupation. Yet, the findings also outline considerable overlaps in specific features considered important or unimportant across perspectives. This study emphasises that police culture needs to be described beyond the logic of distinct dimensions in well-established typologies. Considering specific features of the police profession determines which aspects police officers agree on across organisational and national contexts and which aspects are unique. The suggested feature-based approach provides concrete pointers for the planning and implementation of (inter-)national and inter-organisational collaborations as well as organisational change.
Publication is still in progress.
Czech COMPOSITE website:
Our Czech COMPOSITE members generated a COMPOSITE website in their native language in order to inform about the project in Czech Republic more widely. The website went online in April 2014 and is linked to the University website.
The Czech COMPOSITE website is available via: http://composite.webcentrum.muni.cz/
COMPOSITE poster presentation on 7th June 2014 in Berlin (Germany):
The German COMPOSITE country team informed about the COMPOSITE project in form of a poster presentation titled "COMPOSITE – Forschung über und für die Polizei" (engl. Research On and For the Police) at the second innovation forum "Zivile Sicherheit" initiated by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The guiding theme "Answers from Research" framed the three-day conference which took place from 7th-9th June 2014 at the conference center Café Moskau in the German capital city. The conference was divided into seven thematic pillars: A.) "Science meets…", B.) "Changes of social infrastructure and resilience", C.) "Crisis management: current research findings", D.) "From Research to practice", E.) "White-collar crime and urban security", F.) "Current and future issues" and G.) "Horizon 2020". In this context, the COMPOSITE project was very well received at the poster session in the evening hours of the 7th of June showing its rich content and the benefit the project has for police forces in the projects participating countries and beyond.
"COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies": Targeted study on "Antecedents of employee attitudes toward change: The case centralisation in a UK police force":
To provide more insight into COMPOSITE's research activities we are presenting in our series called "COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies" the targeted studies regarding Work Package 6 (The Identity of European Police Forces) and 7 (Leadership in Police Organisations) of each country team. The kick-off was made by the German country team from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg on "New Structures and Processes regarding HR Management and Operational Leadership in Police Stations of the Brandenburg Police". The Dutch longitudinal study of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam (Netherlands) focuses on the police restructure and the role of identity and leadership. The study by our French partners from the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) on "The Implementation of the Reform of Police Custody in France", ask the question if change is possible without leadership. The Belgian targeted study is a collaboration of the Dutch and Belgian COMPOSITE country team and deals with "Police Officers' Identities, Team Adaptability and Authentic Leadership in the Belgian Federal Police". The Spanish study issued the role of identity, leadership and technology analysing "A New Model of Victim Care in Mossos D’esquadra" of the Catalan police force. The Czech COMPOSITE team presented their study on the "Community Policing and Conflict(Self-)Management" of the municipal police. The Italian study focused on the "Reorganisation of Carabinieri Command for the Protection of Labour". The Macedonian team studied changes in MARRI (Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional) Centre in Skopje, an initiative which deals with the issues of migration management in the Western Balkans. The Romanian COMPOSITE-team dealt in the last issue with the implications of structural organisational change looking at the organisational identity and images of the Romanian Border Police in the international cooperation with FRONTEX Agency.
Our "COMPS"-set will be topped now by the UK targeted study. A compiled publication with all targeted studies is planned. We'll keep you informed via the COMPOSITE newsletter and the COMPOSITE website.
Find out more on the research focus, the theoretical background, the design, conclusions and implications of the UK targeted study and read the following document: "Antecedents of employee attitudes toward change: The case centralisation in a UK police force".
An overview of all targeted studies is also available on our COMPOSITE website http://www.composite-project.eu/index.php/research-insight.html.
"How performance appraisals can encourage ethical behavior" by Gabriele Jacobs:
When Police Leaders use the performance appraisals with their employees wisely, they can contribute significantly to the ethical behavior in their organisation. In the 16th issue of RSM Insight, a magazine which contains management research findings of the Rotterdam School of Management of the ERASMUS University, Dr Gabriele Jacobs, COMPOSITE project coordinator, addressed "how performance appraisals can encourage ethical behaviour" . Gabriele Jacobs referred in this context to a study of German police officers she was conducting together with Frank D. Belschak and Deanne N. Den Hartog (both University of Amsterdam). Besides central findings – such as: "If employees felt supported by their supervisor and their organisation, they tended to behave more ethically at work" (Jacobs 2013: 16) – Gabriele Jacobs stated also recommendations ("lessons learned") with regard to the ethical impact of performance reviews.
Read the full article by Gabriele Jacobs here.
Further readings: Jacobs/Belschak/Den Hartog (2013): (Un)Ethical Behavior and Performance Appraisal: The Role of Affect, Support, and Organizational Justice. Journal of Business Ethics: 1-14.
More information on the Insight magazine is accessible via: http://www.rsm.nl/about-rsm/magazines/rsm-insight/.
"COMPOSITE Conference contribution: COMPOSITE symposium entitled "Enablers and Barriers to Change in Police Organisations" at the Institute of Work Psychology International Conference, 24th-26th June, 2014 in Sheffield (Great Britain):
At the biennial academic conference hosted by the Institute of Work Psychology of the Sheffield University the COMPOSITE project is represented in a symposium (T14) on Thursday 26thof June, 2014. Within five presentations the COMPOSITE symposium is about "Enablers and Barriers to Change in Police Organisations".
An overview of the COMPOSITE symposium can be read here.
For more information on the conference programme and conference registration visit: http://iwpconference.group.shef.ac.uk/
Outcome of the COMPOSITE monitor: "A border based comparison between the European police forces" by Océane Raynaud, Capgemini:
As we are collecting more and more data from the police forces website, the monitoring chain offers us the opportunity to provide more specific and operational information. Unlike previous articles that were focused on a particular event or trend detected within one police force or a single country, it is now possible to progressively start multi-national and multi-forces comparisons. As of today, the COMPOSITE monitoring chain provides data on 42 police forces from 23 different countries and in doing so it is getting closer to the COMPOSITE objectives.
According to Eurostat, "during 2011 there were an estimated 1.7 million immigrants to the EU from countries outside the EU-27. In addition, 1.3 million people previously residing in an EU-27 Member State migrated to another Member State. Thus, about 3.2 million people immigrated to one of the EU-27 Member States, while at least 2.3 million emigrants were reported to have left an EU-27 Member State."
Borders and immigration/migration and related topics are therefore very important issues for national police forces which make them communicate a lot about it on their websites.
Fig. 1: Amount of available data on the police forces websites regarding "Border topics" including the following key words: Immigration, Migration, Passport, Asylum, Schengen and Foreign, on January 1st 2014.
As far as immigration, migration, passport and asylum topics are concerned we may observe a strong concentration and so an equivalent level of data available on those subjects on the websites of the different police forces.
Nonetheless the graphic representation emphasizes the fact that alongside the main trend coexist several particular cases that are very interesting in terms of analyzing and understanding the European police forces. Especially regarding Schengen and Foreigners the level of communication efforts are completely differing from one force to another, even if the country is the same.
Fig.2: Some particular cases (extract from Fig.1)
It is interesting to observe that the Finnish police and the French National Gendarmerie (in light blue and indigo on the graphic) provide exactly the same amount of information on all the topics whereas the three French forces (Ministry of the Interior in pink, National Gendarmerie and National Police in light red) do not. It appears very few information are available on the French police forces websites regarding Passport, Asylum and Schengen; that is because those specific information are provided by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs on its own website.
On the contrary the Estonian Police and Border Guard (in light green on the graphic) provide a great amount of information regarding passports. That topic indeed nearly represents all its communication effort related to the Border topic: 92% of the information provided on that topic is about passports.
The Czech Police (in yellow on the graphic) too provides a great deal of information on its website regarding asylum and foreigners (procedures, advices for travelling, etc.). Those two items represents 56% and 35% (91% in total) of the communication effort made on the Border topic on the Czech police website.
Regarding Schengen, it is the exclusive subject of communication of the Brussels police (in dark pink on the graphic) within the "Border topics". This might be linked to the particular position of Brussels, at the heart of the European Union and hometown of the most important Community institutions.
Finally, we may observe
completely opposite trends regarding the Hungarian National Police (in dark grey on the graphic) and the Hungarian Ministry of Interior (in dark red). The first one is communicating almost exclusively on Immigration when the second is doing the same about Foreigners; as if the missions were divided between the two of them although the topics are clearly linked to one another.
Just as the borders are dividing the land between the countries, the European police forces appear to be divided in their communication strategy and efforts regarding borders and related topics. It would highly interesting to know in what measure the police communication strategy regarding topics such as Immigration/Migration and Foreigners are depending on and influenced by the public policies and political agenda, especially at times of electoral campaigns such as the ongoing local elections in France, and vice versa.
 For more information see the Foreigners dedicated section on the Czech Police website : http://www.policie.cz/docDetail.aspx?docid=21563997&doctype=ART.
 For more information see the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/venir-en-france-22365/.
 For more information, see : http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics.
Outcome of the COMPOSITE monitor: "Police 3.0 or the new Spanish National Police" by Océane Raynaud, Capgemini:
The New York Daily News announced in an article published on January 27th, the visit of Ignacio Cosido, Spain's Directorate General of Police in the United States, to test out Google Glass, the latest innovation of the Google Group. A press release on the Spanish National Police website indicates the Head of Spain’s police force is "seriously looking" at the "research and operational advantages" such a device would provide to police officers on the field. He is thinking about providing Google Glass to every National police officer on the field in order to support their actions against crime.
This piece of information emphasis the importance given by the Spanish National Police in its communication strategy to new technologies and the help they can provide to support daily police work. Diving into the data provided by the COMPOSITE monitoring chain it clearly appears that new technologies and especially all that is connected to "Pictorial representation" such as CCTV or surveillance footage is one of the most discussed topics on the Spanish National Police website and has been for quite some time.
Thanks to the monitoring chain, that is very efficient in detecting "hot topics" and trends based on the monthly scanning of the police forces websites, this article intends to interpret and analyze the image projected by the Spanish National Force through its website as part of the communication campaign developed to promote the 2013-2016 Strategic Plan that is planning to transform the National Police Corps into a Police 3.0.
Fig. 1: Evolution of the hits found on the Spanish National Police website for the "Equipment" domain between April 2012 and January 2014
The "Pictorial representation" item is obviously a key element of the Spanish National Police communication strategy and therefore, considerable efforts are made to communicate about it on the police force website. This item – along with all other related new information and communication technologies, technological innovation and their applications in terms of law enforcement and public safety – considerably increased over the last months as they are considered as milestones in the new Police 3.0 Strategic Plan.
Thanks to the COMPOSITE monitoring chain, the graphic above allows to follow the "communication and marketing aspects" of the implementation of this Strategic Plan through the evolution of the number of hits found on the Spanish National Police website for the "Pictorial representation" item. From April 2012 (in pink on the graphic), before the presentation and implementation of the Police 3.0 Strategic Plan, to January 2014 (in brown on the graphic), going through March and September 2013 (in green and pale blue on the graphic) a distinct and regularly increasing trend is observable.
Another consequence of this transformation into a Police 3.0 underlined by the data gathered by the COMPOSITE monitoring chain is the double communication strategy implemented between the Spanish National Police website and its Twitter account. The news and information as well as advices to the citizens are published on both of them and the website regularly reports on the good health of the Twitter account. Indeed created in 2009, the Twitter account of the Spanish National Police is now one the world most followed police Twitter accounts before the FBI's with over half a million of followers. Presented at the COMPOSITE consortium meeting in Rome as an example of the capacities of the monitor process this fact can now be linked with the Google Glass piece of information and put in a broader perspective that is the communication strategy surrounding the implementation of the Police 3.0 Strategic Plan initiated in January 2013.
Fig. 2: Impact of the new Twitter communication strategy on the global image projected by the Spanish National Police
As introduced in Rome and confirmed by those updated results, the bet made by the Spanish National Police using modern IT technologies to support police work appears to be successful in terms of public interaction partnership as well as values and culture. Since the implementation of the Police 3.0 Strategic Plan and the induced change of communication strategy based on both the website and the Twitter account the number of hits generated by some targeted items increased a lot such as "Public visibility", "Advices to citizen" or "Crime complaint" as both internet and Twitter are more and more used to report ongoing incidents or gather information regarding pending investigations. For example, over 300 arrests were made thanks to the information provided by followers responding to alerts posted by the police officers on the social media.
As of today everything leads to believe the Police 3.0 Strategic Plan communication strategy will continue to generate a progressive evolution of the image projected by the Spanish National Police. The reality on the field may differ slightly from this projected image but ICT is nonetheless THE subject of the moment on the Spanish National Police website and at the heart of an impressive ongoing communication campaign. The later – obviously orchestrated by skilled communicators considering its efficiency – will carry on along with the implementation of the other measures described in the reform text such as the creation of a Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) to fight cybercrime, dismantling organized crime financial framework, securing the borders with the European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR), etc. Future snapshots will provide updated results for a monthly follow-up of the image projected by the Spanish Police 3.0.
About COMPOSITE: from an intern perspective by Johannes Scheuermeyer (student of Psychology at the International Psychoanalytic University Berlin):
First of all the project attracted my interest, when Dipl. Psych. Stefanie Giljohann, who's a scientific assistant at my university and COMPOSITE-team member at the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg (FHPolBB), mentioned the project in one of my lectures. After I talked to her in more detail about the project and the possibility to do an internship within the project, I've decided to apply for it, because I thought it's a great opportunity to transfer the scientifical knowledge I’ve been taught at the university into the "real world" of applied research and to move on from the theoretical aspect of science to a more practical approach. Besides, I thought it would be a great opportunity to gain insight into the police work.
So I started on the 10th of February an eight week internship at the COMPOSITE-project at the FHPolBB. The COMPOSITE-team at the FHPolBB is amongst others responsible for dissemination and training actions within the project. I was given a first insight into the project by reading journal articles and deliverables that have been published during the project. Although it was all very interesting to read, it was still not easy to stay on track because of the rather complicated organizational structure which involved a vast amount of institutions involved in the project as well as many different research topics.
After becoming acquainted with the material I started to understand the structure and the aims of the project more precisely. I also began to realize how unique police culture is, in comparison to an average enterprise. The group dynamics and the sense of commitment and identity seem to be completely different from common work teams in big enterprises. At the moment I’m reviewing relevant literature for the "New Structures and Processes regarding Operational Leadership in Police Stations of the Brandenburg police" study of the COMPOSITE-team. This study gives me some impressions of how challenging change processes within police organisations can be. For me, police organisations seem to be rather traditional institutions in which changes are not very welcome to at least some of the officers. I began to realize how broad the field of responsibility of a chief officer is and how much the subordinate officers expect him to do. Communication on a regular basis between different hierarchical levels seems to be important as well. In the recent days, I also became aware of how much administrative work has to be done in a research project beside the main purpose of researching.
In general, it's a very interesting project and I'm learning a lot about the research process and, different aspects of police leadership. Also I'm gaining a lot of knowledge about the impact of organizational changes and proper ways of dealing with them. I hope I’ve got a more realistic view of scientific research after my internship and that I can establish a practical link to the theories and tests I'm learning about in the lectures. I'd also like to profit from my experiences within the COMPOSITE-project considering organisational aspects as well as research processes, having in mind that further research projects will follow in my studies.
"COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies": Targeted study on "Organizational identity and images of the Romanian Border Police in the international cooperation within FRONTEX Agency: Implications of structural organizational change":
To provide more insight into COMPOSITE's research activities we are presenting in our series called "COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies" the targeted studies regarding Work Package 6 (The Identity of European Police Forces) and 7 (Leadership in Police Organisations) of each country team. The kick-off was made by the German country team from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg on "New Structures and Processes regarding HR Management and Operational Leadership in Police Stations of the Brandenburg Police". The Dutch longitudinal study of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam (Netherlands) focuses on the police restructure and the role of identity and leadership. The study by our French partners from the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) on "The Implementation of the Reform of Police Custody in France", ask the question if change is possible without leadership. The Belgian targeted study is a collaboration of the Dutch and Belgian COMPOSITE country team and deals with "Police Officers' Identities, Team Adaptability and Authentic Leadership in the Belgian Federal Police". The Spanish study issued the role of identity, leadership and technology analysing "A New Model of Victim Care in Mossos D’esquadra" of the Catalan police force. The Czech COMPOSITE team presented their study on the "Community Policing and Conflict(Self-)Management" of the municipal police. The Italian study focused on the "Reorganisation of Carabinieri Command for the Protection of Labour". The Macedonian team studied changes in MARRI (Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional) Centre in Skopje, an initiative which deals with the issues of migration management in the Western Balkans.
The Romanian targeted study is the subject of this issue.
An overview of all targeted studies will be also available on our COMPOSITE website http://www.composite-project.eu/index.php/research-insight.html after being presented in the COMPOSITE newsletter.
Presentation of the COMPOSITE-project on the 17th European Police Congress on 18 and 19 February 2014 in Berlin (Germany):
For the second time, the COMPOSITE-project will be disseminated in form of an exhibition stand by the German COMPOSITE-team from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg (FHPol BB) at the 17thEuropean Police Congress in Berlin. Booklets with COMPOSITE results and general information about the COMPOSITE project will be distributed to an interested police related audience. The congress is hosted at the Berlin Congress Centre (Germany) on the 18th and 19th of February. The topic of this year’s congress is about "Interfaces in Security Architecture: National – European – Global". Interested parties can register for the congress via the congress website: www.european-police.eu.
Outcome of the COMPOSITE monitor: "Similarities and differences between the European police forces: A cluster analysis of the number of hits generated by each of the nine domains of the COMPOSITE monitoring chain" by Océane Raynaud, Capgemini:
The COMPOSITE monitoring chain combined with the classification and visualisation capacities of the Omniscope tool provides us with very interesting data opening many doors towards a better understanding of police forces and their image on a European scale.
Hereafter is a five-cluster representation of the police forces based on their similarities and differences. Each colour represents a cluster that was constituted by Omniscope based on the results obtained for each force regarding the nine domains defined for the monitoring chain; the colours though do not mean anything in itself, they are just used to visually identify the different clusters. Based on the number of hits found on the police forces websites the monitoring chain divides and classifies contents of the websites in three themes: Business, Model and Resources, themselves declined in nine domains: Mission, Organisation, Public Interaction Partnership, Values and Culture, Public Accountability, Organisational Attitude, Human, Equipment and Budget. Those domains are then translated into 51 items defined by police experts.
Fig. 1: Domain cluster representation of the European police forces based on December 2013 snapshot results*
*The dots on the map may not reflect the exact geographical location of the police forces headquarters. We are aware of this discrepancy and currently working to adjust it. It does not affect the data collected on the police websites or the results extracted from it though.
On the one hand, some of the results depicted on this map may appear right away as quite logical, expected even. For example, the fact that Irish and British police forces are indeed gathered in the same cluster (Cluster 1, represented in blue on the map) may be explained by both the geographical and cultural proximity of all those eight police forces. They share a common history that has influenced their development model and that is still today an important factor of their improvement and action strategies. The same goes for the Belgian, French and Luxembourg police. On the other hand, such a cluster representation also enhances differences between police forces and sometimes even within one country. Regarding the seven Belgian police forces studied through the monitoring chain, six of them belong to the same cluster (Cluster 4, represented in red on the map). The Brussels police however distinguishes itself and appears to be closer to the Czech, Hungarian and Italian police force than its fellow Belgian colleagues (cf. Cluster 5, represented in green on the map). Such a result might be interpreted as the expression of the very European and cosmopolite society and atmosphere that is a strong trade of Brussels.
Quite remarkable are the cases of Spain and Germany. For each of those two countries, COMPOSITE monitors found four police forces that turn out to belong to three different clusters illustrating the differences that may exist and last over time within the law enforcement system of one country. Those differences may come from the federal organisation of these states. Indeed both political systems are based on a central or federal state and autonomous local states or communities. If the Bundespolizei is a federal force represented all across the country, the other forces namely the Baden-Württenberg, the Nordrhein-Westfalen and the Brandenburg police are local forces depending from the "Länder" (German local states).
Same goes in Spain for the Spanish national police compared to the Basque police or the Mossos d’Esquadra, namely the Catalonian police force. The differences observed between the Spanish national police and the Spanish Civil Guard, also both national forces, probably comes from the difference of status, missions and history between them. Indeed, the Spanish Civil Guard is the equivalent of a federal military gendarmerie force with specific missions including overseas deployment for peace-keeping operations. As such the Spanish Civil Guard would have certain similarities with forces like the French Gendarmerie or the Italian Carabinieri although those common points are not reflected by the clusters presented of the map above.
A closer look on those clusters reveals the focal points of the police forces in terms of projected image – whether it is intentional or not – through their websites. The following graphics illustrates the average proportions of domains related hits on the police forces websites for each cluster.
|Fig. 2: Cluster 1 is characterised by a bare majority of the values and culture domains, followed by organisational attitude.|
|Fig. 3: Cluster 2 is characterised by the importance given to the public interaction partnership domain, followed in lesser proportions by public accountability and mission.|
|Fig. 4: Cluster 3 is characterised by the predominance of the values and culture domain. Equipment is the second domain in terms of hit rate but represents less than half of the values and culture related hits.|
Fig. 5: Cluster 4 is characterised by the predominance of the mission domain and a quite fair repartition of the other domains in terms of hit rate.
Fig. 6: Cluster 5 is characterised by two prevailing domains that are organisation and public accountability.
Except Cluster 4 where it represents 7% of the hits – on an equal basis with public interaction partnership and organisation – it is interesting to notice that the budget domain is almost nonexistent in four out of five clusters where it represents 1% or less of the hits.
The point of this analysis is to provide the research community and police officers with an example of the information and services the Omniscope tool combined with the COMPOSITE monitoring chain can provide for them to push the analysis of their police forces even further.
 Omniscope is a software distributed by the French company Avizua. It is a powerful data processing, visualisation and management tool that grants the Capgemini team with the capacity to analyse and exploits the data uploaded from the police forces websites by the COMPOSITE monitoring chain.
 The Omniscope tool was adjusted to produce a five cluster analysis.
Event note: 8th Interdisciplinary Workshop on Global Security – WISG 2014 on January, 30-31:
From 30th to 31st January 2014, the 8th Interdisciplinary Workshop on Global Security – WISG, a French conference on security, will take place at the Troyes University of Technology (France). This year’s conference is in the spirit of the European and French-German (research) cooperation. Within three sessions the conference will address different subjects: "Structuration of the French industrial sector and its links with Europe" (session one, 30th January), the framework programme of the European Union "Horizon 2020" (session two; 30th January); "Research and innovation in security: new perspectives?" (session three, 31st January). The second conference day will be closed with parallel poster sessions. This conference might be a good possibility to get in contact with potential research cooperation partners, especially in France and Germany. The conference is free of charge.
More information on the agenda and practical information is available via: http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr/en/meetings/wisg-2014/8supthsup-interdisciplinary-workshopbr-on-global-security-wisg-2014/.
"COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies": Targeted study on "MARRI Regional Centre in Skopje":
To provide more insight into COMPOSITE's research activities we are presenting in our series called "COMPS – COmposite Members Present Studies" the targeted studies regarding Work Package 6 (The Identity of European Police Forces) and 7 (Leadership in Police Organisations) of each country team. The kick-off was made by the German country team from the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg on "New Structures and Processes regarding HR Management and Operational Leadership in Police Stations of the Brandenburg Police". The Dutch longitudinal study of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam (Netherlands) focuses on the police restructure and the role of identity and leadership. The study by our French partners from the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) on "The Implementation of the Reform of Police Custody in France", ask the question if change is possible without leadership. The Belgian targeted study is a collaboration of the Dutch and Belgian COMPOSITE country team and deals with "Police Officers' Identities, Team Adaptability and Authentic Leadership in the Belgian Federal Police". The Spanish study issued the role of identity, leadership and technology analysing "A New Model of Victim Care in Mossos D’esquadra" of the Catalan police force. The Czech COMPOSITE team presented their study on the "Community Policing and Conflict(Self-)Management" of the municipal police. And in the last newsletter the Italian study focused on the "Reorganisation of Carabinieri Command for the Protection of Labour".
The Macedonian targeted study is the subject of this issue.
Find out more on the research focus, the goal and the design of the Macedonian targeted study and read the following document: "Changes in MARRI (Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative) Regional Centre in Skopje".
An overview of all targeted studies will be also available on our COMPOSITE website http://www.composite-project.eu/index.php/research-insight.html after being presented in the COMPOSITE newsletter.